Announcing the sd-notify crate2022-01-12
This is a quick post announcing the
sd-notify is a Rust library for interacting with
systemd or a compatible service manager.
If you're not running Linux or you don't like
systemd, this crate is not for you.
systemd in 3 minutes
Assuming you are running
systemd, at some point you might find yourself with a program you want to automatically run on start-up. Historically, this meant doing an intricate dance which includes calling
fork() twice and writing your PID to a file, but fortunately, with
systemd this is no longer required and is actually discouraged.
You can take your plain console application and make a
systemd unit for it:
[Unit] Description=Monitors room temperature [Service] User=stats ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/monitor-temperature Restart=on-failure RestartSec=10 [Install] WantedBy=default.target
You then drop that file under
systemctl enable --now monitor-temperature and you're done.
For the effort, you get logs (
journalctl -efu monitor-temperature), precise child process tracking (using control groups), CPU, memory and I/O accounting, automatic restarts, and a way to manage your service across all the popular Linux distros.
systemd start-up types
If your daemon has a long start-up sequence,
systemd can tell you whether it is ready or not. In order to do that, you can set the
The simplest, and also the default, option is called
simple. It means that the daemon is marked as ready right after it starts. Another useful option is
forking, which means that the service does the classic double-fork dance. You can read more about these two (any many others) in your
systemd.service documentation page.
sd-notify crate helps with is the
notify start-up type. This lets you do whatever initialization you want, then notify
systemd that you are ready by sending a over a Unix socket. Services can also say that they are reloading their settings, stopping, or even set a status message. The protocol is described in detail here.
The basic usage is quite simple. You do your initialization steps, then call:
let _ = sd_notify::notify(true, &[NotifyState::Ready]);
That's all and now your daemon only shows as "running" when it finished starting up.
$ systemctl status monitor-temperature Active: activating (start) since Wed 2022-01-12 20:36:02 EET; 9s ago [snip] $ systemctl status monitor-temperature Active: active (running) since Wed 2022-01-12 20:36:12 EET; 2s ago [snip]
You can also include a status message:
let _ = sd_notify::notify( true, &[ NotifyState::Ready, NotifyState::Status("Monitoring room temperature"), ], );
$ systemctl status monitor-temperature Active: active (running) since Wed 2022-01-12 20:41:46 EET; 782ms ago Status: "Monitoring room temperature" [snip]
There's also one advanced feature: you can retrieve file descriptors passed by the service manager, for socket-activated daemons. You can read more on it here.
sd-notify is written in pure Rust, has no dependencies and is available under a permissive license (MIT or Apache-2.0). My intention is that it stays lightweight, but I'm not necessarily opposed to adding more features.